What is PO How to implement automated test po layering

By orchioo Oct21,2023 #cable

PO, which stands for Page Object, is a design pattern commonly used in software testing to enhance test automation. It helps to separate the test logic from the underlying implementation details of the application user interface (UI). This article aims to provide an overview of PO and explain the steps involved in implementing automated test PO layering.

What is PO?

Page Object (PO) is a design pattern that represents each page or logical section of a web application as an object. It encapsulates the UI elements, actions, and associated behaviors of that particular page into a reusable and maintainable code module. By abstracting the UI, PO enables testers to write tests in a more readable and understandable manner, ultimately improving the efficiency and reliability of the overall test automation process.

Implementing Automated Test PO Layering:

1. Identify Application Pages:

The first step in implementing automated test PO layering is to identify and define the pages or logical sections of the application that need to be tested. Each page should have its own corresponding PO class.

2. Define Page Objects:

For each identified page, create a separate PO class. The PO class should represent the page and contain methods to interact with the UI elements on that page. These methods should hide the underlying implementation details and expose only the necessary actions and behaviors.

3. Leverage Abstraction:

Use abstraction techniques such as inheritance and composition to promote code reusability and maintainability. Create a base PO class that contains common methods and properties shared across multiple pages. Inherit from this base class in specific PO classes to extend and customize functionality as needed.

4. Use Locators:

Locators are used to identify the UI elements on a page. Use reliable and unique locators like IDs, CSS selectors, or XPath expressions to locate the elements within the respective PO classes. The use of locators ensures robustness in test execution, even if the UI changes over time.

5. Separate Test Logic:

Separate the test logic from the PO classes. Tests should only focus on defining the steps and assertions, while the PO classes handle the interaction with the UI. This separation of concerns makes the tests more concise, readable, and maintainable.

6. Maintain Sync between Test Cases and PO Classes:

Keep the test cases and the PO classes in sync. As the UI evolves, update the PO classes accordingly to ensure their smooth functioning with the evolving application.

7. Implement Test Execution Framework:

To execute the automated tests, develop a test execution framework that integrates with the PO layering. The framework should provide functionalities for test data management, test case execution, reporting, and handling test failures.


The implementation of Page Object (PO) layering in automated testing is a valuable approach to enhance test automation efficiency and maintainability. By encapsulating the UI elements and their associated behaviors into reusable and maintainable PO classes, testers can write more reliable and readable tests. By following the steps outlined in this article, testers can successfully implement automated test PO layering and reap the benefits it offers in their testing endeavors.

By orchioo

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